Specifically, in its 2018 review of the global fuel cells market the company E4 Tech concluded that the shipping industry is focused on fuel cells, as a result of the 2020 sulphur cap and other emission restrictions.
The report states that fuel cells remain costly and for now, they are not available in big quantities or sizes that are needed for multiple shipping applications and they require a fuelling infrastructure that is not available.
Fuel cells only produce CO2 and water and they generate power though a chemical reaction. For this reason they are more environmentally friendly than fossil fuels and more efficient as well. In fact, the fuel cells developed at EPFL have achieved 75% efficiency, compared to less than 50% for even the most efficient diesel engine.
For more information on the report, click here.