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Shipping of liquefiable bulk cargoes: lessons from real-life incidents

During the first SAFETY4SEA Conference in Singapore, Mr. Lee Hiok Liang, Naval Architect, T&T Salvage, shared lessons learned from real-life bulk cargo liquefaction accidents, stressing that, apart from transportable moisture limit, sea condition is the other closely related critical parameter that causes high humidity cargoes to be unstable, more liable in rough sea for cargo shifting and consequential ship capsizing. In general, in the dry bulk cargo shipping industry there are two types of cargo instability that have been identified, so far. The first one is cargo liquefaction and the second one is cargo instability due to dynamic separation. We have two, it's not too many, but these two problems have caused a lot of safety issues to the seafarers and also the ship, that's carrying the cargo. But what is cargo liquefaction?When a vessel goes into the sea loaded with cargoes, it will encounter motion at sea and, at sailing time, this cargo will go through a process of settlements, compactions and when they compact, they release the air in between the cargo space, or in between the pore area. this pore area when it is compacted the water pressurebetween the pore spaceswill increase and these take away the ...

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