While increased automation and artificial intelligence seem to open new routes for shipping, vulnerability of systems is another area of concern shipping has to encounter. Malicious software (also known as ‘malware’) is software or web content that can harm an organisation. The most well-known form of malware is viruses, which are self-copying programs that infect legitimate software.
In mid-2017, the industry was shaken by a major cyber-attack against Maersk, the world’s largest container shipping company, which led the sector to adopt a new look at cyber security issues. The 2018 validated this trend as cyber incidents continued affecting operators, ports, and shipbuilders.
The UK National Cyber Security Centre has cited 5 simple and easy-to-implement tips for organization to protect from malware:
Tip #1: Install (and turn on) antivirus software:
- Antivirus software – which is often included for free within popular operating systems – should be used on all computers and laptops. For your office equipment, you can pretty much click ‘enable’, and you’re instantly safer.
- Smartphones and tablets might require a different approach and if configured in accordance with the NCSC’s EUD guidance, separate antivirus software might not be necessary.
Tip #2: Prevent staff from downloading dodgy apps:
- You should only download apps for mobile phones and tablets from manufacturer-approved stores (like Google Play or Apple App Store). These apps are checked to provide a certain level of protection from malware that might cause harm.
- You should prevent staff from downloading third party apps from unknown vendors/sources, as these will not have been checked.
- Staff accounts should only have enough access required to perform their role, with extra permissions (i.e. for administrators) only given to those who need it.
- When administrative accounts are created, they should only be used for that specific task, with standard user accounts used for general work.
Tip #3: Keep all your IT equipment up to date (patching):
- For all your IT equipment (so tablets, smartphones, laptops and PCs), make sure that the software and firmware is always kept up to date with the latest versions from software developers, hardware suppliers and vendors. Applying these updates (a process known as patching) is one of the most important things you can do to improve security – the IT version of eating your fruit and veg.
- Operating systems, programmes, phones and apps should all be set to ‘automatically update’ wherever this is an option.
- At some point, these updates will no longer be available (as the product reaches the end of its supported life), at which point you should consider replacing it with a modern alternative.
Tip #4: Control how USB drives (and memory cards) can be used:
- It only takes a single cavalier user to inadvertently plug in an infected stick (such as a USB drive containing malware) to devastate the whole organisation. When drives and cards are openly shared, it becomes hard to track what they contain, where they’ve been, and who has used them. You can reduce the likelihood of infection by:
-blocking access to physical ports for most users
-using antivirus tools
-only allowing approved drives and cards to be used within your organisation – and nowhere else
- Make these directives part of your company policy to prevent your organisation being exposed to unnecessary risks. You can also ask staff to transfer files using alternative means (such as by email or cloud storage), rather than via USB.
Tip #5: Switch on your firewall
- Firewalls create a ‘buffer zone’ between your own network and external networks (such as the Internet). Most popular operating systems now include a firewall, so it may simply be a case of switching this on.