The use of ammonia as a fuel is expected to grow due to its zero-carbon content, easier distribution, storage and bunkering compared to hydrogen, and its suitability with existing and emerging technologies for propulsion and power generation, a new whitepaper by ABS suggests.
As part of its sustainability-focused whitepapers examining different fuel options for shipping, ABS has published guidance on ‘Ammonia as Marine Fuel’, evaluating the challenges in design and operation of ammonia-fueled vessels and considering ammonia as an option in both the near-term and long-term.
The ammonia is considered one of the feasible solutions for carbon-free shipping economy. One of the challenges of alternative fuels being considered, is their lower energy content compared to conventional fuel oils such as HFO. This is particularly a challenge for hydrogen; however with ammonia being a more volumetric efficient hydrogen carrier, it offers a potential practical zero carbon solution for shipping, the guide reads.
As previously reported, the big advantage of ammonia is that it can be stored in higher temperatures in a liquid form under atmospheric pressure. It is a mildly cryogenic liquid. Under atmospheric pressure, we need –33,4 degrees. At ambient temperatures of 20 degrees, we need about 10-bar pressure.
Ammonia is a zero-carbon fuel that can enter the global market relatively quickly and help meet the IMO’s GHG reduction target for 2050. It offers shipowners and operators a zero-carbon tank-to-wake emissions profile but is not without challenges, not least the greater prescriptive requirements for containment and equipment than most of the other alternative fuels under consideration and the need for development for supply side infrastructure,
…said Georgios Plevrakis, ABS Director, Global Sustainability.
The whitepaper can be downloaded here.