What is striking about the the Authority's figures is that refineries emitted 6.6% (0.6 million tonnes) less CO2 in 2018 than in 2016.

The Rotterdam refineries are also doing well in the long term. The CO2 emissions of the refineries have decreased by no less than 20% since 2005 (2.1 million tonnes), while production increased by 4% in the same period and many more low-sulphur products are produced. The latter requires more energy.

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In the meantime, emissions from companies producing industrial gases increased. Among other things, they make hydrogen which desulphurises fuels.

All companies that fall under the emissions trade system (ETS) are included in the Authority's figures.

The data provide information of 96% of the emissions coming from the Rotterdam industry.