John Maggs, senior policy advisor at Seas At Risk and president of the CSC, said: “This is an important development that closes a serious loophole in the original agreement. Banning the carriage of non-compliant fuel will make it considerably more difficult for unscrupulous ship operators to ignore the rule, burn cheaper non-compliant fuel, and escape serious sanction. This decision, which must be confirmed by the IMO in April, will mean a cleaner environment and fewer premature deaths from ship air pollution.”

As explained, ship air pollution is linked to approximately 400,000 premature deaths from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease alone and around 14 million childhood asthma cases annually, according to a latest research. It is also estimated that the new marine sulphur cap will help avoid around 700,000 cancer and cardiovascular disease-related premature deaths and around 40 million childhood asthma cases during the first five years of its implementation.

Major industry players recently supported that making it an offence to carry non-compliant shipping fuels would be the most effective way to enforce the ban on such fuel being burned at sea. The proposal results from growing concerns from the signatories that, as complying with the low-sulphur fuels requirement will cost ship operators money, some ships will honour the new rules when they are close to ports, but then switch to cheaper high-sulphur fuel on the open seas.

Faig Abbasov, shipping officer at Transport & Environment, a member of the CSC, said: “The ban on burning high-sulphur fuel that was agreed in 2016 had the right objective, but requires robust enforcement as the additional cost of compliance brings a significant incentive to cheat. By following through with a ban on carrying non-compliant high sulphur fuel, governments would better ensure no one can simply switch to the cheaper, dirty fuel once they leave port and are out of sight of the authorities.”

In a related development, IMO PPR also agreed to move forward with the consideration of measures to control black carbon emissions from ships and their impact on the Arctic. Black carbon emissions account for 7-21% of shipping's global climate impact, according to the latest research. Its main impact is felt in the Arctic, as black carbon warms up and accelerates the melting of polar ice. New research also shows the switch from dirty heavy fuel oil to higher quality fuels like marine distillates would reduce ship black carbon by, on average, 33%.