NOx emissions from shipping is a major source of airborne deposition of Nitrogen, aggravating nutrient pollution or eutrophication which is one of the main environmental concerns in the Baltic. The initiative to cut this source of pollution by a Baltic Sea NECA under MARPOL Annex VI emerges from the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan, agreed by the nine coastal countries and the EU ten years ago in 2007.
"This is a remarkable moment. The Baltic Sea countries and EU have collectively arrived to the goal of establishing a Baltic Sea NECA, proving an undeniable success in joint cooperation. Even better, we did this together with the North Sea which multiplies the benefits for the Baltic Sea," says Anita Mäkinen on behalf of Finland, the lead country of the Baltic NECA application process.
"This is a good example of how the close cooperation between the Baltic and North Seas can help us achieve something bigger than what would be possible in one region alone," adds Ditte Kristensen on behalf of Denmark, co-lead of the North Sea NECA application together with the Netherlands.
"Estimated cut in airborne deposition is significant"
According to fresh estimates by European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), consisting of deposition modelling based on available emission scenarios (Jonson et al 2015), the annual reduction in total Nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea area will be 22,000 tons as a combined effect of the Baltic and North Seas NECAs and compared to a non-NECA scenario. However, a lengthy period of fleet renewal is needed before the regulation will show full effect.
Out of this total anticipated reduction in Nitrogen deposition, 7,000 tons is estimated to be reduction from direct deposition to the Baltic Sea surface and the remaining 15,000 tons is estimated to be reduced from deposition to the landmass draining to Baltic Sea, also called its catchment area.
"Over the last decades we have monitored Nitrogen deposition from airborne emissions of human activities contributing to the eutrophication of the Baltic, from agriculture to shipping. The estimated cut in airborne deposition due to these new NECA designations is a significant share of the total airborne load," says Jerzy Bartnicki, from EMEP.
"Scenarios and modelling on shipping in the two regions show that NOx emissions are likely to increase without NECA designations," adds Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen from the Finnish Meteorological Institute, who have provided ship emission modelling for the Baltic Sea NECA application.
The HELCOM Country Allocated Reduction Target (CART) scheme has divided a total load reduction commitment of 118,000 tons Nitrogen, and 15,000 tons Phosphorus among the coastal countries. Implementation of the scheme will result in curbing eutrophication problem in the Baltic.
The estimated 7,000 ton reduction in Nitrogen deposition to the surface of the Baltic Sea alone is more than the total Nitrogen reduction commitment of an average Baltic Sea coastal country within the HELCOM scheme of national commitments. In other words, five out of nine coastal countries have a total annual reduction quota for Nitrogen loads which is less than 7,000 tons.
Other positive effects
Besides cutting emissions, the new regulations will have many indirect positive effects for the Baltic Sea marine environment. The new NECAs will likely increase the use of green shipping technology and alternative fuels such as LNG, and in general catalyse technological innovations in the field of green shipping. Voluntary schemes for existing ships will be essential to achieve additional NOx emission reductions.
The Baltic Sea was designated as a Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) in 1998 based on a similar proposal, also developed within HELCOM Maritime Working Group during the 1990s. In 2015 the enforcement of the 0,1% sulphur limit for fuel oil under the SECA led to drastic 88% reductions in SOx emissions from shipping in the Baltic Sea region compared with 2014, as estimated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and reported by Finland to the HELCOM Maritime Working Group in September. The IMO meeting this week agreed that a global 0,5% limit in fuel oil sulphur content should be applied from 2020.
"This is truly a milestone which will have genuine positive effects on the unique marine ecosystem of the Baltic Sea area. The regional cooperation within the HELCOM framework has certainly proven to be very successful – this would not have happened if we hadn't worked together and developed a robust, scientifically based and comprehensive application," concludes Anna Petersson, Chair of the HELCOM Maritime Working Group.
"The recently adopted prohibition of discharge of sewage from passenger ships together with the approval of the designation of the Baltic Sea as a NECA are two fantastic achievements that marks the end of many years of hard work and dedication from the Baltic Sea states," she continues.