Seed Cake used in these Guidelines includes any type of pulp, meals, cake, pellets, expellers or other cargo where oil has been removed from oil-bearing seeds, cereals or commodities with similar properties.
Trade names under which Seed Cake may be presented for shipment include, but are not limited to, those listed below:
- Animal feed;
- Copra extraction pellets;
- Groundnut meals;
- Palm kernel expellers;
- Peanut (oil) cake;
- Peanut meal;
- Seed meal, oily;
- Soya bean meal;
- Sunflower (seed) meal.
Dangerous Properties of Seed Cake
The presence of oil and moisture in Seed Cake cargoes can cause self-heating. Microbiological self-heating, driven by the inherent moisture content, can increase the temperature of the cargo to a point where oxidation of the residual oil occurs. This oil oxidation can cause further self-heating occurring.
While all self-heating is usually initially slow, oxidative self-heating can be much faster than microbiological heating and may raise the temperature high enough for the cargo to ignite spontaneously. As a result, the higher the moisture and oil content the higher the risk of self-heating and spontaneous ignition.
Seed Cake derived from solvent extraction may have an additional hazard arising from residual flammable solvent mixed in the cargo. However, in the majority of cases, the manufacturing processes the Seed Cakes are subjected to will mean that most if not all solvent will have been recovered and recycled.
The carriage of Seed Cake cargoes continues to cause confusion and the potential for misdeclaration remains high.
The shipper should ensure that the correct certification accompanies the cargo and is provided to the carrier in accordance with the oil content and moisture content of the Seed Cake and that the Seed Cake has been properly aged and where appropriate is substantially free from flammable solvents
Non-declaration of Seed Cake as dangerous goods leads to unsafe stowage and dramatically increases the risk of fire, potentially leading to loss of life, assets and damage to the environment.
Dry 20ft or 40ft containers can be used. Containers should be in a good condition and clean.
Cargo Transport Units used for the carriage of Seed Cake in bulk must comply with the test requirement of ISO 1496-4:1991. Non-operating reefer containers are susceptible to damage and should not be used for the carriage of Seed Cake in bulk.
Non-operating reefer containers may be used for the carriage of packaged Seed Cake providing the packaging is suitable.
Packaging and Quantity
For Seed Cake carried in packaged form, the packaging of cargo within the container should be in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 4.1 of the IMDG Code.
Under Special Packing Provision PP20, any sift-proof, tear-proof receptacle may be used for Seed Cake UN 1386 and UN 2217.
It is suggested that these guidelines that shippers presenting Seed Cake for carriage ensure that the temperature of the Seed Cake to be placed inside the container should not exceed 55ºC at the time of stuffing.
Inspection of Containers Before Carriage
It is recommended that, before carriage, carriers satisfy themselves by means of a photo story or container inspection, for example, that the cargo has been packed and secured with a method that allows proper ventilation and safe transportation.
Seed Cake shall be transported in compliance with the stowage and segregation requirements set out in the IMDG Code. These requirements vary in detail for Seed Cake presented for shipment under UN 1386(a), UN 1386(b) or UN 2217.
In all cases containers of Seed Cake should be protected from sources of heat and kept dry.
It is recommended under these Guidelines to stow containers of Seed Cake ON DECK ONLY where they are accessible to allow fire-fighting procedures to be carried out
See further information in the following guidelines