The handbook explains key case law, summarising major rulings of both the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights.  It also presents hypothetical scenarios that serve as practical illustrations of the many issues encountered in this ever-evolving field.


According to report, in today's digitised world, every activity leaves a digital trace that can be collected, processed and evaluated. With new information and communication technologies, more and more data are collected and recorded.

Until recently, there was no technology able to analyse or evaluate the mass of data or to draw useful conclusions, as the data were too many to evaluate, and too complex to identify trends and habits.

Regarding data protection, the main concerns are on the one hand, the volume and variety of personal data processed, and on the other hand, the processing and its results.

The introduction of complex algorithms and software to make mass data a resource for decision-making purposes affects individuals, notably in cases of profiling or labelling, and ultimately raises many data protection issues.

In Europe, the process of personal data is lawful only if it is permitted under European data protection law. However, it is vital that consent is given freely and it needs to be specific, informed and unambiguous. Freely given means that data subjects must have the ability to exercise a real and genuine choice. Consent is specific and informed where it is can be easily understood, describing precisely the purposes of the data processing.

Learn more information about the EU GDPR law in the PDF below